HEPiX Meeting at PISA, 11 - 14 Oct 1993


                         Alan Silverman

1     Introduction

The second European HEPiX meeting of 1993 took place at the Scuola
Normale Superiore in Pisa, Italy and was jointly organised by SNS and
by INFN Pisa.  Once again it was held in conjunction with HEPVMx
in the so-called HEPMIX format, starting with HEPiX concentratingcp
on UNIX matters, a joint HEPiX/HEPVMx meeting concentrating on
batch and storage issues and finally a meeting  devoted to VM.  This
time the week began with two half-day introductory talks on PERL and
TK/TCL respectively, both ably presented by Lionel Cons from CERN.

    Some 45 people attended the meeting.  A full set of overheads is
available at CERN in the Computer Science Library and a partial set is
available via WWW under the entries HEPiX - Pisa.

2     Welcome

Alan Silverman opened the meeting by introducing Prof Emilio Picasso,
the Director of the Scuola Normale Superiore, who welcomed the meet-
ing to Pisa and thanked the audience for the contribution that HEPVM
had made to the success of the LEP experiments.  He foresaw that the
work of HEPIX in preparing for LHC  would  be  an  even  harder  job.
However the saving in effort that comes out of HEPIX standardisation
and collaboration was even more important these days when money is

    Prof Giuseppe Pierazzini, the director of INFN Pisa, also welcomed
the audience to Pisa.  He reminded them that this was the second such
visit to Pisa since HEPVM had met there in 1998. The problem then had
been the increased data rate due to LEP. Now there were two problems,
firstly the high data volume foreseen for LHC and secondly the migration
from proprietary operating systems to Unix. He stressed the importance
of a common Unix interface on big machines and on the desktop and
wished us a fruitful weeks work.

3     Site  Reports

3.1     IN2P3 - Wojciech Wojcik

The BASTA farm at Lyon, which had consisted of two IBM RS/6000
model 550s, two model 370s and seven Hewlett Packard 9000/735s, had
recently been upgraded by the addition of a further three RS/6000 550s,
three model 370s and 14 HP 735s. BASTA is now delivering much more
cpu than the VM system. A new version of BQS that is independent of
NQS and portable is now under beta test. Ztage now has output capa-
bility as well as input. Both BQS and ztage are Posix 1003.1 compliant.
By December 1993,  BQS will also be 1003.15 Posix batch compliant.
Future plans will add I/O scheduling and add checks to ztage to prevent
duplicate staging.

    Lyon have carried out tests driving their STK robot connected via
channel cards to an RS/6000  model  550  with  400  MB  of  SCSI  disk.
Performance tests had shown bandwidths between memory and tape of
2 Mbytes per second and between disk and tape of 1.2 Mbytes per second
for a single transfer. When two tapes were driven the rates halved.

    The BASTA project will be enhanced by the addition of two other
components, Sioux and Anastasie, to provide interactive and analysis
services that require better I/O throughput.

3.2     Fermilab - Judy Nicholls

Fermilab have eight people supporting 650 machines.  The bulk of the
production physics work has migrated to Unix; the next challenge is to
convince the general users to move from VMS.

    Both fixed target and collider experiments are making heavy use of
Fermilab facilities, both UNIX farms and VAX clusters.  The Amdahl
is currently being run down and Unix farms are dominating the cpu
time delivered, a total of 5000 VUPS delivered today out of 9000 VUPS

    More general purpose UNIX services are to be  provided  by  the
FNALU  and  CLUBS  systems.   The  CLUBS  (Clustered  Large  UNIX
Batch System) service delivers batch using IBM's LoadLeveler software.
An analysis server based on an IBM SP1 was now in service. The STK
robot driven by the Amdahl at present will soon be switched to two
RS/6000 model 580s and data will be delivered to the batch servers by

    FNALU is a UNIX interactive service based on AFS. Moving the
home directories of CLUBS users to FNALU and serving the home di-
rectories to CLUBS using IBM's AFS translator was not reliable initially.

3.3     DESY - Karsten Kuenne

Current services include an Apollo cluster (frozen and gradually being
phased out), 17 Hewlett Packard 730s, seven of which will upgrade to
735s soon, with 70 Gbytes of disk, a Silicon Graphics farm containing
seven new challenge machines - a total of 84 cpus and 4.5 Gbytes of
memory.  The SGI machines  were  chosen  because  of their ability to
pack several cpus in a box and because of their large number of SCSI
controllers. This year, DESY has installed two Ampex D-2 tape library
robots each with three drives and 256 25 Gbyte tapes. The robots have
an NFS front end.  They are now working  satisfactorily  after  initial
problems.  During trials the head design was changed, before that they
needed cleaning every day.  The goal is to write raw data directly to
Ampex tapes.  It is planned to include an interactive service using part
of this system.

    Two hundred X terminals had been added making a total of 600. All
X terminals are controlled by XDM. Most use a chooser, usually a built-
in Tektronix or NCD one. Authorisation is by magic-cookie with special
scripts xrsh and xrlogin to pass this onto remote machines.  Hamburg
has more NCD than Tektronix X terminals but Zeuthen has Tektronix

    The so-called HEPiX scripts are in use at both Hamburg and Zeuthen
and although they differ, it is hoped to resolve this soon and use a single
set.  Versions for tcsh and csh have just been finished and are under
test.  A set of supported tools have been defined, they include vi, pico,
emacs, pine, elm, mh, www, news, xrn, xmosaic, tin.  Reference cards
are provided for all of these.  Backup  on  SGI  currently  uses  Legato
Networker.  The software has been fine but the Exabytes have failed,
especially the 8500 stackers. Backup will soon be changed to use ADSM
(formerly DFDSM) in MVS to write to the STK robots.

    Problems encountered have included the performance of the Hewlett
Packard systems,  NFS and FDDI are not much better than ethernet
and HFS. Vendor supplied automounters have given difficulties and the
management of the increasing number of X terminals can cause prob-

    NFS is used to cross mount users' files but AFS is being considered
for next year.  It is planned to  replace the  mainframe  by  a  smaller
machine next year.  DESY currently use Ultranet but are considering
moving away from it because of doubts about future vendor support
after the recent take-over of the original supplier.

3.4     DAPNIA - P.Micout

It is planned to use IN2P3's central computer services next year.  The
Cray X/MP-128 will be stopped in Febuary 1994, the 116 (in Marseille)
in January 1994.  The Cray II in Grenoble will be replaced by a Cray
C94 with a T3D (128 Alphas). Central CPU server at DAPNIA will be
based on an IBM SP1 (16 RS/6000 CPUs) + a file server.

    The nuclear physics community has 100 Suns + 1 Sparccenter 2000
for Nuclear Physics. Particle physics has a mixture of DECstations 5000,
RS/6000s, Alphas running VMS, Vaxes and X terminals.

3.5     CERN - A.Silverman

AFS is becoming strategic for home directories and ASIS. One experi-
ment, Chorus, is trying out the workgroup concept based on AFS. The
increased use of X terminals, contractor assistance for updates and plans
for standard configurations should reduce the work required for systems
adminstration. In the discussion, several sites were interested in a possi-
ble offer to install a single AFS client licence as part of the CERN "cell"
in order to access the new ASIS (in which the master copy will be on
AFS). What side effects will this cause?

    Currently, there are 1400 workstations on site with central support
for 7 platforms.  WWW, Unix user guides and installation guides are
being used to reduce the number of queries.

    Central services include Crack for passwords, backup using ADSM
and AFS home directories services. DFS tests have been made with IBM;
HP and DEC are expected soon.  For systems management, Tivoli, Pa-
trol and FullSail have also been evaluated, with Tivoli the most promis-
ing but it is very expensive.

    The challenges are providing support for a large range of platforms,
buying in contract assistance if necessary. Standard profiles and utilities
must be developed to reduce the variety of systems. New SunOS server
licensing rules are also causing concern.

3.6     KEK - T.Sasaki

Central  computing  based  around  a  Hitachi  mainframe,  a  farm  of  11
Sparc stations and a Sony DD-1 tape drive (1Tb/volume!) plus a super-
computer, several MPP systems and lots of VMS and UNIX stations.
Projects include Root, a support service for workstation administrators,
and Kiwi, an NFS based file server from Auspex.

3.7     RAL - B.Saunders

The central Unix service is based on 5 Alphas running OSF/1 today and
providing interactive and batch services for the whole community and a
simulation facility based on 6 HP 735s. RS/6000s provide tape and file
services and act as a front-end to the Cray. It is planned to cease VM by
about April 1994, replacing it by a large VMS system and a CSF-type
farm. The file server is an RS/6000 with 27Gb of disk. Each file system
has its own name defined in the Name Server which should allow easier
migration in future.

    A clone of ASIS is used but RAL misses the EPIP function under
OSF/1 to install public domain software on client stations.

    The central tape services are based on the RAL virtual tape proto-
col, 6.5Tb in total, staging through the 3090 and RS/6000s. The HEPiX
profiles and a standard user environment have been established.  Net-
working with SuperJANET has given 140Mbps between 6 sites and an
ATM pilot using real-time video has been established.

3.8     NIKHEF - W.van Leeuwen

Central computing facilities are based around a Sun 4/690.  There are
Apollos, DEC, HP, IBM, Next, SGIs and Suns on site.  At the end of
1995, the SARA VM mainframe service will be stopped and the Robot
will be managed by the Cray or RS/6000. Future projects include video
conferencing and AFS.

3.9     CASPUR - N.Sanna

An IBM 3090 and an 8 way Alpha Farm using OSF/1 and a Gigswitch
provide the central computing.  The Utopia batch system will be used
for scheduling batch and interactive work around the farm.  Some par-
allel applications using PVM are being developed.  The APE project,
a parallel system,  is being developed at CASPUR. It currently has 8
CPUs moving to 128 CPUs next year.  The 3090 is being used a front
end to ADSM, nstage, and the accounting database.

3.10     GSI - M.Dahlinger

Main CPU systems are an IBM 3090 600J, RS/6000s, HP 720s and a
Memorex  robot.   The  standard  workplace  uses  PCs  and  X  terminals
to access these resources.  The MVS service will be downsized, but not
completely removed, and the VMS Alpha and IBM RS/6000 clusters will
be increased to compensate.  Standardising on KornShell, LoadLeveler
for batch and backup using ADSM.

    Channel connections between the RS/6000s and the mainframe, run-
ning MVS, give problems and poor performance.

3.11     CINECA - C.Bassi

There is an HP cluster based on the CSF configuration from CERN.
NQS, RFIO and RTCOPY from the SHIFT software package are all
used.  Currently tape serving is performed by the Cray but there is a
concern about future software support now that there is no Cray in-
stalled at CERN. This is a new field for CINECA and is currently in
test; they hope to start production soon.

4     X11 at DESY (Administration aspects) - Thomas Finnern,  DESY

Th.   Finnern  gave  numbers  for  the  supported  systems  at  the  DESY
computer centre.  Out of 600 Xterminals, 435 are supported centrally
and of 250 Workstations, 65 are supported centrally.  X support has to
be provided for a mixture of X Terminals from NCD and Tektronix and
various workstation consoles. For an X terminal the following ressources
should be present (depending on the usage 50 to 1000 percent of these
numbers might be needed):
    o  3 MB of graphics memory

    o  2 MB of I/O memory

    o  1 MB of local client memory

    o  5 MB of session server memory

    o  5 MIPS of the session server CPU

    o  100 kbit/s net bandwidth

    X stations use the following protocols: bootp, tftp/NFS, xdmcp and
snmp. To establish an application on an X terminal several servers come
into action, which all can reside on the same host or be duplicated for
enhanced reliability (boot, configuration font login chooser, login session
and application server(s)).  For security reasons the MIT magic cookie
protocol should be used where possible (not available on DEC/VMS)
instead of the xhost-based authorisation.  Experience with the different
vendors has shown that not all tasks can be performed on all terminals
(example:  xdm host list is not configurable for login chooser on XP 20
terminals from Tektronix).

5     Control  Host,  A  UNIX-based  central  commander/monitor host - 
      A. Maslennikov, INFN

A. Maslennikov reported on a tool that allows to control and monitor
processes on remote hosts.  A typical application is in the field of slow
control of experiments and interaction with real time systems such as
for example OS/9.  The tool is free of commercial software, easily con-
figurable and can be tailored to further HEP applications.

    The GUI is based on Tk/Tcl/Xf. Graphics is based on CERN stan-
dards like HIGZ and PAW. The interprocess communication goes via
tcp sockets and shared memory (local communication).  The package
consists of a main dispatcher process that handles communications and
data transfers, several data driven client processes and a library of ac-
tion programs, utilities to access and transfer data and to configure the

    The achieved rate of handling events with a setup consisting of an
RS6000 and an OS/9 system was up to 5 Hz.  A beta version will be
available from CONHOST@ITCASPUR.CASPUR.IT by mid november.
A final version including a user  manual  is expected after  Feb '94 at

6     Experiences  with  automounters  in  a  multi-vendor environment  -  
      A.Koehler,  DESY

Automounters are used mainly to simplify the system administration, to
avoid stability problems with crossmounted filesystems in the net and
to introduce naming schemes of mounted filesystems.  Sysadmins can
benefit from additional tools provided with the automounters and from
the built-in NIS support.

    In this talk an introduction to  the principles  of automounter op-
eration and configuration was given.  A discussion of vendor-supplied
automounters was followed by a summary of their disadvantages:
    o  different sets of supported automounter maps

    o  replicated filesystems not supported by all vendors

    o  update of the maps causes problems (reboot)

    o  overall stability in a heterogeneous environment is poor.

    The decision at Zeuthen was therefore to  use the unofficial (en-
hanced, public domain) version amd of the automounter which is avail-
able from ftp.cs.columbia.edu. Advantages include the many additional
features such as an extended syntax for the automounter maps and the
support of additional filesystem types.

    Examples for the usages of amd were given including
    o  home directories mounted locally, via Ethernet and FDDI

    o  replicated servers for a filesystem

    o  architecture sharing of parts of a filesystem (e.g.fonts)

    The speaker also gave some examples of amd administrations and he
concluded that the scheme used at Zeuthen was stable and the admin-
istration effort for mounted filesystems could be reduced.  Some of the
functionality of AFS could already be achieved by properly using amd.

7     Experiences  and  Conclusions  with  the  CHORUS  Group  Server  -  
      Tony  Cass,  CERN

The CHORUS group server, a concept for a modern, Unix- and X-based
environment for a new collaboration, was presented.  It is based on the
assumption that different functions can be devoted to different, relatively
small dedicated workstations.  It was realized with 2 RS/6000 which
work as process and file server respectively. Tony emphasized the crucial
role of AFS as an institutional file system for the project.

    Still open questions are the lack of a well developed user setup, espe-
cially in the AFS environment, poor X-support and other configuration
issues requiring manual intervention on individual machines.

    At the end he touched on some problems with mail agents currently
in use and the lack of useful desktop utilities.

    As a conclusion he rated the concept as generally viewed success-
ful with the consequence that interactive services could be moved off
CERNVM in 1995 with sufficient investment in manpower and resources
in 1994.

8     Product management at DESY R2 - Thomas Finnern,  DESY

Thomas presented the work of DESY on a tool for distributing products
easily on various workstations and platforms, called SALAD. It allows
to copy the product from a reference machine or distribution via tape
or ftp. It is available for all major Unix flavors.

    SALAD recognizes automatically the appropriate binary type.  Bi-
nary classes with different levels of subdivisions depending on operating
system, release and version levels as well as additional hardware require-
ments are taken into account.

    The  product  description  is  documented  in  a  short  and  easy  cus-
tomizable form and is distributed together with the product itself. This
so-called salad-card controls then the automated installation procedure.

9     Unix  at  Pisa  -  Maurizio  Davini,  SNS  Pisa

In 1992 the Physics Department purchased an RS/6000 model 950 to
replace an IBM 9370 system running VM/CMS. This system supports
individual logins (from Xterminals, PCs and Macs) and also acts as a
central server for the clusters in the various physics groups (theory and
astrophysics for example).  Overall, the Physics Department has about
25 workstations, 15 Xterminals 70 Macs and 30 PCs.

    Besides the use of (NSCA) telnet, Mac users can also use CAP soft-
ware, developed at Columbia University, to access the 950. This provides
a Mac-like front end access to Unix through the System 7 AppleShare
facility and also allows the RS/6000 to act as a repository for Mac soft-

    Elm and Pine are the supported mail agents for Unix users. POP is
supported for PC and Mac users with Eudora as the Mac mail agent.

    Gopher and especially WWW are widely used for information access
with the latter providing access to CERN manuals. MacMosaic is a good
WWW browser, but really requires a powerful Mac.

    Future Unix development at the Physics Department will focus on
AFS (in collaboration with SNS and INFN Pisa), IBM's LoadLeveler
product, the introduction of a CSF service on an HP cluster and inves-
tigations into parallel processing, especially using PVM.

    There was a brief presentation of  the  University  of  Pisa  Network
Service (SIERRA). The hardware aspects (a chief goal being the linking
of all University departments and ISDN testing) were covered briefly,
the  focus  was  more  on  the  services provided.  Here the major work
has been carried out in the infomation access area with News, Gopher,
WWW, Archie and Veronica servers all installed - the latter being the
first Veronica server in Europe.  WWW is seen as a key technology for
the future and there is a project together with CNUCE-CNR to develop
WWW servers for museum guides and manuscript access.

    Finally Italo Lisi covered the situation at the SNS. The current VM
and VMS users will be moved to an upgraded Central Unix service as
quickly as possible.  Together with the University and the Department
of Physics they will be exploring MAN technology to improve the com-
munication infrastructure between the various sites.

10      A new model for CERN computing services in the post-mainframe era -  
       Chris  Jones, CERN

This presentation fell into two distinct parts. Firstly an overview of the
post-mainframe CERN computing strategy based on foils provided by
David Williams and secondly an overview of the strategy for the pro-
vision of interactive (desktop) services.  Batch CPU  capacity  will  be
provided through an extension of the existing CORE services at CERN.
It was assumed that most people present knew about the CORE archi-
tecture and Les Robertson would cover CORE status in the afternoon
as part of the joint HEPiX/HEPVMx batch meeting.

    a) Overall Strategy

    Basically  the  message  is  that  CERN  has  to  move  away  from  the
current situation, developed over the past 20 or so years, where a central
mainframe provides a natural integration of all computing services.  In
particular it is clear that the CERNVM service cannot continue for more
than 5 years or so.

    The migration strategy planned is, unsurprisingly, to move to a dis-
tributed computing model which, when fully developed, should provide
better services for the same money. The move will not save money and
will even involve greater expenditure in the short term.  CN division is
aware of the problems of switching the computing model for LEP exper-
iments (it is assumed that other existing experiments will largely end
before VM goes and that new experiments will build up their computing
environment in the new structure) and it is clear that CERNVM must
be maintained until replacement services are available.

    A replacement interactive service is a key element - CORE already
provides a solid foundation for future batch services - but will not be easy
as so much depends on the "look and feel" of the environment rather
than the basic system hardware. Fortunately a lot of the required soft-
ware technology is appearing at the moment (AFS, DCE, COSE) but
there will also be a much increased reliance on the CERN internal net-
work.  In fact, CERN will need to rebuild the internal network, moving
to a structured wiring based system as the existing cheapernet network
is at the limits of its capacity and manageability.

    A particular problem for CERN in trying to provide a unified inter-
active environment will be the lack of ultimate control over the hardware
and software platforms to be supported - it is assumed that CERN will
have to support systems chosen by institutions in the member states.
As such, it is hoped that HEPiX could perhaps provide some help to
reduce the number of hardware/software combinations.

    Between now and the end of 1994 (when the current IBM 9021-900
lease expires) CN plans to move most of the batch load off CERNVM
onto an expanded CORE service and develop an attractive Unix inter-
active service.  In 1995/1996 CERN will acquire a 390 mainframe of
sufficient capacity to cope with the interactive load which will then be
moved to other services. If necessary a "rump" VM service will be pro-
vided in 1997.  CN division will be reorganised to cope with the focus
on batch and interactive computing by creating two new groups - led
by Les Robertson and Chris Jones respectively - out of the old System
Software and Consultancy and Operations groups.

    Hans Klein raised the issue of the staff needed to help move LEP
computing environments - he felt that such people would need a good
knowledge of CERNVM and not just of Unix. Chris replied that this was
true, but that it was also likely that many "production control" systems
would be rewritten rather than ported - L3 are already planning to do
just this to be ready for the start of LEP200.

    b) Interactive Strategy

    The basic strategy for interactive services, on whatever platform, is
to minimise the "personality" of any individual platform.  Both PCs
and Workstations should have as  few  as possible locally-altered  files.
Standard configurations and networked services provide the best means
for a relatively small number of people to manage a large number of
boxes; CN staff will manage services (home directory services, software
distribution services) and not systems.

    The main focus for interactive services will be the basic Mail, News
access and document preparation type of facilities common to all users.
Today nearly 3/4 of CERNVM users do little else and use CERNVM
only because there is no CN provided alternative. However, CN also has
to take account of the needs of physicist users which include the require-
ment for rapid turnround for program testing.  Thus CN must provide
sufficient CPU capacity and also data access as part of the interactive

    It is imagined that there will be two interactive services - one Win-
dows  and  Novell-based  for  PC  (and  Macintosh)  users  and  one  Unix-
based.  The PC service will be the natural further development of the
NICE service which provides an integrated environment for at least 1000
PCs. In particular, NICE provides today a standard installation facility
(DIANE) with which a newly-purchased PC can be setup by booting
from a single diskette.  However, NICE does not yet provide a particu-
larly solid home directory service and this will be the focus for improve-

    The Unix-based interactive service is not in such an advanced state,
but will be developed from the experience gained in providing a Unix
environment for the CHORUS experiment.  Here CN started to build a
server for CHORUS but, through the availability of AFS and the early
realisation of the problems of non-standard system configurations, ended
up concentrating on the services that were needed.  Thus the aim is to
move towards a NICE-like system with "shrink-wrapped" installation
procedures and standardised environments.  To do this, we will build
on AFS (and later DFS) as the fundamental technology which makes
distributed home directory and software services a practical proposition.
In addition to CN-provided, experiment-based and publically-available
Unix servers, we hope this architecture will extend to privately-owned
workstations and to X terminals for which CN will provide the necessary
support services, e.g. boot servers.

    In moving towards a standardised Unix environment, CN will rely
heavily on external sources of standardised software, notably the HEPiX
work on standard user profiles and the COSE work on a common desktop

    Given  that  VM-based  interactive  capacity  will  be  available  until
1996, there is less immediate pressure for a fully-fledged interactive ser-
vice than for a batch service.  However, CN has to be in a position to
start moving VM users to a better interactive environment in 1995 and
there will be much work required in 1994 to ensure this will be possible.

    c) Discussion

    John Gordon - ATLAS want an HP-based Unix system at CERN
and an OSF/Ultrix-based system at RAL - what do they really want?

    Chris  Jones:  They  want  a  good  interactive  service  rather  than  a
service on the same architecture as the CPU service.  There is some
concern about whether or not HP systems can provide a good interactive
service but this has to be tested.

    Hans Klein - Likes the description of the Unix service but wonders
why it is being restricted to ATLAS and CMS.

    Chris Jones - Basically we need to stop these new experiments get-
ting entrenched in a (soon to be) outdated environment and the limited
number of people available prevents us from doing more.

    HK - But Delphi are currently moving to Unix, we don't want to go
off in the wrong direction here either.

    CJ - Point taken.

    John Gordon - If batch jobs are moved off CERNVM in 1994 will the
CPU be idle at night?  And RAL experience is that it is not trivial to
move off batch work from individuals as opposed to physics production

    Chris Jones - Exact position still unclear but we do imagine that
there will be unused capacity and we also see that moving production
jobs will be much easier than moving private analysis jobs.

11      Status of The HEPIX common user environment  project  -  
        W.  Friebel,  DESY

The talk focused on 5 items:

   1.  Components of the environment:

          o  Startup

          o  Keybindings for the various shells and utilities, e.g.  emacs,
             the less browser

          o  X11-environment; X11 usage wss standardised by providing
             various scripts and setup files and a standard chooser

          o  A Common pool of programs such as emacs 19, elm and pine,
             less, etc.

          o  SysAdmin-Support.

       The speaker made some remarks on realization and the advantages
       versus disadvantages of using commercial tools or locally-provided
       tools or a widely-available set of common tools.

   2.  Benefits for users of the DESY scripts:

          o  Same environment everywhere

          o  not necessarily supported locally, but present and available

   3.  Usage summary:

          o  Used at DESY Hamburg + Zeuthen

          o  Tested in: RAL, CERN, GSI Darmstadt, Dortmund

          o  7 reports of experience, about 40 fetches of "profiles" + "key-
             bindings" during May - September '93

   4.  Known problems:

          o  scripts too long

          o  overhead due to conditional code needed for multi-platform

          o  missing documentation

          o  incomplete installation instructions
          o  no complete description explaining certain choices

          o  overall packaging could be improved

   5.  Future of the project

          o  reduction in size of scripts by removing site-specific parts;
             perhaps a method to produce production scripts for one ar-
             chitecture/site from a large master script.

          o  binaries for e.g. tcsh, zsh, elm, emacs, ...

          o  more documentation

          o  improved packaging and installation scripts; perhaps a make

    In his summary, Wolfgang pointed out:

    o  Benefit for current users is small, but huge for newcomers

    o  The installation is still difficult, but will be improved

    o  The number of installations using the common environment will
       increase by having simpler scripts, better documentation, better
       packaging and closer cooperation with other sites.

12      To  a  LHC  computing  model  -  Willem van Leeuwen,  NIKHEF

In his talk, Willem, drew attention to the differences between LHC ver-
sus LEP in the amount of data, the required computing power and the
greater number of people and institutions involved. He commented on:

    o  Basic concepts such as distributed computing, transparent access
       to data from the desktop, the need for a uniform environment and
       platform independence.  It is be important to use industry stan-
       dard h/w and s/w and to provide adequate network bandwidth.

    o  ATLAS strategy and ATLAS computing infrastructure

    o  Activities outside CERN: Participation in pilot projects,  Monte
       Carlo simulations, Mail services and WWW services

    o  Global Data Access using WWW

    A  final  comment  was  on  "some  change  in  the  routing  of  IP  net-
work traffic" which made interactive work between NIKHEF and DESY
almost impossible; the careful handling of such undertaking is very im-

13      Are  You  worried  about  the  DATA  flow  and storage for LHC - 
        Hans Joerg Klein, CERN

In a reply to the previous talk, Hans Joerg identified some of the daily
problems with data and data processing in and outside CERN concern-
ing LEP.

14      Wrap-Up of HEPIX - Alan Silverman, CERN

Alan covered the following points -

    o  availability of minutes (scheduled for publication in November if
       possible); they would be made available via anonymous ftp at Pisa,
       HEPiX news and mail, and WWW.

    o  ideas for further seminars along the lines of the PERL and TK/TCL
       seminars  given  this  week.   Future  topics  could  include  AFS  or
       Emacs 19.  Suggestions and offers to present something should be
       addressed to him.

    o  a document directory currently being established by Judy Richards.
       She was expected to announce this shortly.  The primary access
       would be via WWW. She will gladly accept references to docu-
       ments which people wish to see publically available.

    o  a Tools Data Base:  Alan would be discussing this further at the
       forthcoming US HEPiX meeting.

    o  next meetings.  These include US HEPIX on Oct 27-29 at SLAC,
       a HEPiX "World" meeting to run adjacent to CHEP 94 scheduled
       on April 20-27 at San Francisco, HEPIX "Europe" autumn '94 to-
       gether with HEPMiX. [After the meeting, DAPNIA kindly offered
       to host the next European meeting at Saclay sometime in October
       1994, exact date to be fixed later.]

15      Acknowledgements

We are greatly indebted to the staff and management of SNS Pisa for
welcoming us and organising the meeting with such efficiency.  Thanks
are especially due to Prof Emilio Picasso, Director of SNS and Mario
Soldi and his staff.

    We must also thank the speakers of all the sessions throughout the
week for agreeing to present their work and share their experiences. We
especially thank Lionel Cons who spent the whole of the first day on his
feet presenting the two half-day seminars.

    On a personal note, I would like to thank the attendees who agreed
to be volunteered to be chairmen (chairwoman in one case) and minute
takers. The details above are the results of their efforts. Any errors are
probably the result of my editing.

                               Alan Silverman (Editor)
                               2 December 1993

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